Posted in Cloud Certifications, Cloud Computing

Amazon Web Services Certified Solutions Architect Certification – Notes – 1

Reference: Aws Documentation

I am just reading material from AWS and creating Notes from it. SHaring here so it an be useful to others as well. Screenshots are also taken from the Documentation and Other material from AWS.

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When you deploy any type of application, you typically need to do the following:• Set up a computer to run your application.• Secure your application and resources.

• Set up your network for users to access your application.

• Scale your application.

• Monitor your application and resources.

• Ensure that your application is fault-tolerant.

An AMI is a template that contains a software configuration (e.g., operating system, application server, and applications).
When you launch your Amazon EC2 instances, you can store your root device data on Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) or the local instance store. Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) is a durable, block-level storage volume that you can attach to a single Amazon EC2 running instance.Amazon EBS volumes behave like raw, unformatted, external block devices you can attach.
Alternatively, the local instance store is a temporary storage volume and persists only during the life of the instance
You can stop and restart an Amazon EBS-backed instance, but you can only run or terminate anAmazon EC2 instance store-backed instance.By default, any data on the instance store is lost if the instance fails or terminates.
In AWS, a key pair is used to connect to your instance.
AWS has security groups that act like inbound network firewalls so you can decide who can connect to your Amazon EC2 instance over which ports.
Auto Scaling can automatically launch and terminate instances on your behalf according to the policies that you set. If you have defined a baseline AMI, Auto Scaling launches new instances with the exact same configuration.
Amazon CloudWatch monitors AWS cloud resources and the applications you run on AWS.You can collect and track metrics, analyze the data, and react immediately to keep your applications and business running smoothly.You can use information from Amazon CloudWatch to take action on the policies that you set using Auto Scaling.You can monitor the status of your instances by viewing status checks and scheduled events for yourinstances
Elastic Load Balancing provides this service in the same way that an on-premises load balancer does. You can associate a load balancer with an Auto Scaling group. As instances are launched and terminated, the load balancer automatically directs traffic to the running instances. Elastic LoadBalancing also performs health checks on each instance. If an instance is not responding, the load balancer can automatically redirect traffic to the healthy instances.
You can control access between the servers and subnets by using inbound and outbound packet filtering provided by network access control lists and security groups. Some other cases where you may want touse Amazon VPC include:• Hosting scalable web applications in the AWS cloud that are connected to your data center

• Extending your corporate network into the cloud

• Disaster recovery

To make your web application fault-tolerant, you need to consider deploying your computers in different physical locations.Availability Zones are analogous to data centers.It’s even more advantageous to spread your instances across Regions. If a region, including all of its

Availability Zones, becomes completely unavailable, your traffic is routed to another region.

 1. AWS Use Cases - 1
 1. AWS Use Cases - 2
AWS currently provides AMIs based on the following versions of Windows:

  • Microsoft Windows Server 2012 (64-bit)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 (64-bit)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2008 (64-bit)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2008 (32-bit)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2003 (64-bit)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2003 (32-bit)
3. Application Architecture in AWSAs an example, we’ll walk through a deployment of a simple web application. If you’re doing something

else, you can adapt this example architecture to your specific situation. In this diagram, Amazon EC2

instances in a security group run the application and web server. The Amazon EC2 Security Group acts

as an exterior firewall for the Amazon EC2 instances. An Auto Scaling group maintains a fleet of Amazon

EC2 instances that can be automatically added or removed in order to handle the presented load. This

Auto Scaling group spans two Availability Zones to protect against potential failures in either Availability

Zone. To ensure that traffic is distributed evenly among the Amazon EC2 instances, an Elastic Load

Balancer is associated with the Auto Scaling group. If the Auto Scaling group launches or terminates

instances to respond to load changes, the Elastic Load Balancer automatically adjusts accordingly.

To install the Auto Scaling command line tools to your local computer.PROMPT>as-cmdThis command returns a list of all the Auto Scaling commands and their descriptions.
Amazon EC2 instances created from a Public AMI use a public/private key pair, rather than apassword, for signing in. The public key is embedded in your instance.You use the private keyto sign in securely without a password.

.pem extension).

A security group defines firewall rules for your instances. The new rules are automatically enforced for all running instances.4.Security Group in AWS
For Windows, It can take up to 30 minutes to get the original password from the time you launched your Amazon EC2 instance.
Elastic Load Balancing automatically distributes and balances the incoming application traffic among allthe instances you are running, improving the availability and scalability of your application.5.Elastic Load Balancing in AWS

5.Listener COnfiguration in Elastic Load Balancing in AWS

This example uses a single forward slash so that Elastic Load Balancing sends the query to your HTTP server’s default home page, whether that default page is named index.html, default.html, or a different name.
After you create a load balancer, you can modify any of the settings except for Load BalancerName and Port Configuration.5.Port Configuration in Elastic Load Balancing in AWS
As a best practice, you should have sufficient instances across Availability Zones to survive the lossof any one Availability Zone.
The rules for this security group will be enforced when the instances that use these rulesare launched.
Auto Scaling launches and terminates Amazon EC2 instances automatically according to user-defined policies, schedules, and alarms.For example, you can instruct Auto Scaling to launch an additional instance whenever CPU usage on one or more existing instances exceeds 60 percent for ten minutes, or you could tell Auto Scaling to terminate half of your website’s instances over the weekend, when you expect traffic to be low.Auto Scaling groups can even work across multiple Availability Zones.

With Auto Scaling, you can ensure that you always have at least one healthy instance running.

By setting the minimum and maximum number to be the same, you can ensure that you always have the desired number of instances even if one instance fails.

When you create your actual website, as a best practice you should launch sufficient instances across Availability Zones to survive the loss of any one Availability Zone. Additionally, the maximum number of instances must be greater than the minimum to make use of the Auto Scaling feature.

In this example, you will set up the basic infrastructure that must be in place to get Auto Scaling startedfor most applications. You’ll do the following:• Create a launch configuration.

• Create an Auto Scaling group.

• Create a policy for your Auto Scaling group.

PROMPT>as-create-launch-config MyLC –image-id ami-191dc970 –instance-type

m1.large –group webappsecuritygroup –key mykeypair –monitoring-disabled


monitoring-disabled specifies that you want to use basic monitoring instead of detailed monitoring.

By default, detailed monitoring is enabled.

To create an Auto Scaling group in which you can launch multiple Amazon EC2 instances, you will use the as-create-auto-scaling-group command. Use the following parameters to define your Auto Scaling group.

PROMPT>as-create-auto-scaling-group MyAutoScalingGroup –launch-configuration

MyLC –availability-zones us-east-1b, us-east-1c –min-size 2 –max-size

2 –load-balancers MyLB


To create a policy to enlarge your fleet of instances, we will use the as-put-scaling-policy command. This policy applies to the Auto Scaling group you created in the previous step.

PROMPT>as-put-scaling-policy MyScaleUpPolicy –auto-scaling-group MyAutoScal

ingGroup –adjustment=1 –type ChangeInCapacity –cooldown 300


adjustment is the number of instances you want to increment or decrement. For this example, use 1.

cooldown is the time, in seconds, after an action before Auto Scaling should evaluate conditions again.

Auto Scaling can decrease the number of instances when your application doesn’t need the resources, saving you money. To create a policy for terminating an instance, start from the policy you just created, change the policy name, and then change the value of adjustment from 1 to -1.

PROMPT>as-put-scaling-policy MyScaleDownPolicy –auto-scaling-group

MyAutoScalingGroup “–adjustment=-1” –type ChangeInCapacity –cooldown 300

Amazon CloudWatch is a web service that enables you to monitor, manage, and publish various metrics and to configure alarm actions based on those metrics.The following diagram demonstrates how Amazon CloudWatch and Auto Scaling work together. The Amazon EC2 instance reports its NetworkOut metric to Amazon CloudWatch. Amazon CloudWatch fires an alarm if the specified threshold has been been exceeded and reports this to the Auto Scaling Group.6. Amazon CloudWatch in AWS

6. Alarms in Amazon CloudWatch in AWS

PROMPT>as-update-auto-scaling-group MyAutoScalingGroup –min-size 0 –maxsize0PROMPT>as-describe-auto-scaling-groups MyAutoScalingGroup –headers

PROMPT>as-delete-auto-scaling-group MyAutoScalingGroup

Posted in Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing Topics for Paper Presentation and Journals

Cloud Computing Topics
  1. Cloud /Grid architecture
  2. Cloud-based Services and Education
  3. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  4. Software as a Service (SaaS)
  5. Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  6. Virtualization
  7. High-Performance Computing
  8. Cloud-Delivered Testing
  9. Cloud Lock-in vs. Cloud Interoperability
  10. Multi Cloud Frameworks & APIs
  11. Monitoring Cloud Applications
  12. Data Security & Encryption On The Cloud
  13. Elastic Computing
  14. Cloud Databases
  15. Private vs. Public Clouds
  16. Cloud Scalability
  17. Cloud Analytics
  18. Interoperability and emerging standards
  19. Composition and integration
  20. Master data management
  21. Software architectures and technology platforms
  22. Software development processes
  23. Data Governance
  24. Lifecycle management
  25. Reliability and Availability
  26. Security
  27. Business aspects
  28. Customer behavior
  29. Software services science
  30. Financial impacts, pricing and sales models
  31. Legal and country-specific aspects
  32. Ecosystems and new business models
  33. Industry-specific perspectives
  34. Demonstration of applications and/or their successful usage
  35. Application:
    1. Cloud based industry applications, such as cloud based search, cloud based e-business and mobile commerce, wireless cloud
  36. Architecture:
    1. Cloud middleware and toolkits
    2. Cloud reference architectures and service models
  37. Business:
    1. Cloud computing economics including ROI, TCO, purchasing models, pricing models of cloud computing
    2. Scientific, industrial and social implications of cloud computing
  38. Cloud engineering:
    1. Cloud programming models, such as MapReduce/e.g., Hadoop, coordination for distributed computing/e.g., ZooKeeper, Web scale NOSQL database/e.g., Cassandra
    2. Practice of using open source cloud computing technologies
    3. Method, model, and process for creating and deploying virtual images, defining the
      patterns and parts for application middleware and applications
    4. Technologies to support high availability, scalability, and caching to enhance runtime in cloud platform
  39. Green:
    1. Technologies for green data centers (e.g., algorithms and technologies that could help save power in data centers)
  40. Management and optimization:
    1. Cloud service management
    2. Monitoring and automatic scaling of cloud computing resources
    3. Optimization, dynamic sharing and provisioning of virtual resources such as virtual machines, virtual storage, and VLAN
  41. Standards:
    1. Cloud computing standards (such as those derived from OVF,)
    2. Interoperability among format of different virtual machines (e.g., VMware, Xen, KVM)
  42. Technologies and services:
    1. Architecting cloud computing with enabling technologies, such as Web services and semantic Web
    2. IaaS technologies, especially virtual technologies and their application in dynamic resource provisioning
    3. Key characteristics of cloud programming, such as agility, cost, device and location independence, reliability, security, sustainability, scalability, and maintenance
    4. Open API and service orchestration on cloud platform
    5. Other cloud services (connectivity services, and persistence services, including NOSQL technologies)
    6. PaaS technologies, especially cloud platform management technologies including fast provisioning of complex topologies
    7. SaaS technologies (such as multi-tenancy, management of applications and tenants in multi-tenant environment)
    8. Theoretical model of cloud computing
    9. Workload characters and performance evaluation and modeling of cloud computing.
  43. Architectural models for cloud computing
  44. Cloud resource management and allocation
  45. Utility models and service pricing
  46. New parallel / concurrent programming models for cloud computing
  47. Scientific computation and other applications in the cloud
  48. Workflows for cloud computing
  49. Content Delivery Networks using Storage Clouds
  50. Programming Models:
    1. To avoid the pitfalls of heterogeneous programming paradigms, what are
      the software engineering challenges that developers face when
      targeting the cloud as their production environment to offer services?
  51. Service Management:
    1. How is cloud computing going to address the challenges around soaring
      service management costs?
  52. Cloud Services:
    1. What are the new business models for services that could optimally
      leverage cloud economies of scale?
  53. Architectural models for cloud computing
  54. Virtualization of the infrastructure
  55. Platform as a service
  56. Software as a service
  57. Hardware as a service
  58. Elasticity in clouds
  59. Storage virtualization
  60. Green computing models for clouds
  61. Programming models for clouds
  62. Cloud computing for the mobile world
  63. Threat handling and security issues in clouds
  64. Enterprise applications on clouds
  65. OS development for applications on clouds
  66. QoS for applications on clouds
  67. Optimization and performance issues on clouds
  68. Communication protocols for clouds
  69. Databases for clouds
  70. Web 2.0 and clouds




Posted in Cloud Computing, Public Cloud

AWS Icons for Architecture Diagrams

AWS Icons for Architecture Diagrams are a great way to communicate about your design, deployment and topology. Here you will find official collection of AWS icons, tools and resources that will help you build great AWS Architecture diagrams.

AWS Simple Icons

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Available Format:

  • Online Drawing Tool – Draw Diagrams Online with Cacoo (Cacoo Store) or Creately (Creately Templates) or LucidChart (LucidChart Libraries)
  • SVG and EPS Format – AWS Simple Icons in SVG and EPS (ZIP)
  • Microsoft Visio Stencil – AWS Simple Icons for Microsoft Visio 2010 (VSS)
  • Microsoft PowerPoint Format – AWS Simple Icons for PowerPoint (PPTX)

Download from:



Posted in Virtualization, VMware

How to start Free 60-Day VMware vSphere 5.1 Trial

To start Free 60-Day VMware vSphere 5.1 Trial Visit –

Register / Login

Click on Free 60-Day vSphere 5.1 Trial

1.Free 60-Day vSphere 5.1 Trial

Multi Choice Questions On C and C++
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Click on License and Download

2.Free 60-Day vSphere 5.1 Trial

Download vSphere ESXi

3.Free 60-Day vSphere 5.1 Trial - vSphere ESXi

Download vCenter Server

4.Free 60-Day vSphere 5.1 Trial - Management Server

Once Download completes, You have 60 days to install, configure and use  vSphere 5.1

Posted in Cloud Computing

What is OSI Model?

 OSI Model : Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model: conceptual model to standardizes the internal functions of a communications system by partitioning it into abstraction layers.

Multi Choice Questions On C and C++
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OSI Model

Trick to remember Layers Name:

From Top to Bottom:

All People Seem To Need Data Processing

All Pros Search Top Notch Donut Places

All People Should Try Not Doing Pushups

All People Should Try New Dairy Products

From Bottom to Top:

Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away

Posted in Cloud Computing

how to create local yum repository in centos 6.4

local yum repository in centos 6.4

Copy all RPM files /var/www/html/localrepo/RPMS

[root@localhost x86_64]# createrepo ./
bash: createrepo: command not found

cd /var/www/html/localrepo/RPMS

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[root@localhost x86_64]# yum install createrepo

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base:
* extras:
* updates:
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
–> Running transaction check
—> Package createrepo.noarch 0:0.9.9-17.el6 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: python-deltarpm for package: createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch
–> Running transaction check
—> Package python-deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: deltarpm = 3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6 for package: python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64
–> Running transaction check
—> Package deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6 will be installed
–> Finished Dependency ResolutionDependencies Resolved================================================================================
Package              Arch        Version                       Repository
createrepo           noarch      0.9.9-17.el6                  base       94 k
Installing for dependencies:
deltarpm             x86_64      3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6       base       71 k
python-deltarpm      x86_64      3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6       base       27 kTransaction Summary
Install       3 Package(s)Total download size: 192 k
Installed size: 518 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch.rpm                |  94 kB     00:00
(2/3): deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64.rpm       |  71 kB     00:00
(3/3): python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64.rp |  27 kB     00:00
Total                                           127 kB/s | 192 kB     00:01
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing : deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64                      1/3
Installing : python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64               2/3
Installing : createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch                               3/3
Verifying  : python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64               1/3
Verifying  : createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch                               2/3
Verifying  : deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64                      3/3Installed:
createrepo.noarch 0:0.9.9-17.el6Dependency Installed:
deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6
python-deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6Complete!

Go to /etc/yum.repos.d

create cloudstack.repo

name=Apache CloudStack