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Create a Local Yum Repository in CentOS 6.3 in 5 steps


Create a Local Yum Repository in CentOS 6.3 in 5 steps

1) Install CentOS 6.3 -> How to install CentOS 6.3 ; In CentOS6.3 Desktop Installation, Apache is installed in built. Verify

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Apache status in CentOS 6.3
Apache status in CentOS 6.3

2) Insert DVD/ISO into DVD-Drive. 3) Create Directory with mkdir -pv /var/www/html/centos/6.3/i386/RPMS/ and copy all RPM files from the DVD (Part-I, Part-II)

ifconfig - verify the IP Address of the Machine
ifconfig – verify the IP Address of the Machine

cp /var/www/html/centos6.3/i386/createrepo* /tmp/repo/

cp /var/www/html/centos6.3/i386/deltarpm* /tmp/repo/cp /var/www/html/centos6.3/i386/python-deltarpm* /tmp/repo/cp /var/www/html/centos6.3/i386/libxml2-python* /tmp/repo/
RPMs needed to run create Repository command createrepo
RPMs needed to run create Repository command createrepo
Run the RPMs
RPMs needed to run create Repository command createrepo 1
RPMs needed to run create Repository command createrepo 1
[root@localhost admin]# rpm-ivh /tmp/repo/deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.i686.rpm
[root@localhost admin]# rpm -ivh /tmp/repo/python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.i686.rpm[root@localhost admin]# rpm -ivh /tmp/repo/libxml2-python-2.7.6-4.el6_2.4.i686.rpm [root@localhost admin]# rpm -ivh /tmp/repo/createrepo-0.9.8-5.el6.noarch.rpm
createrepo - Create repomd (xml-rpm-metadata) repository
createrepo  is a program that creates a repomd (xml-based rpm metadata)
       repository from a set of rpms.
4) [root@localhost admin]# createrepo /var/www/html/centos6.3/i386/
createrepo command
createrepo command

[root@localhost admin]# createrepo /var/www/html/centos6.3/i386/2559/4776 – php-tidy-5.3.3-3.el6_2.8.i686.rpm

iso-8859-1 encoding on Ville Skytt� <ville.skytta@iki.fi> – 2.8.24776/4776 – diffutils-2.8.1-28.el6.i686.rpm
Saving Primary metadata Saving file lists metadata Saving other metadata [root@localhost admin]#

Use Rsync to create the updates-released repository (Not tried) 5) Change baseurl as per assigned IP address or use Localhost; Make sure that you change baseurl in all sections in the /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo file (Hint: You need to make sure that baseurl is correct else it will give error for repodata/repomd.xml file; If createrepo command will run successfully then this directory along with files will be created where all RPMs are located or where you have created repository. ).

edit -etc-yum.repos.d-CentOS-Base.repo
edit -etc-yum.repos.d-CentOS-Base.repo

Done!!!

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Posted in Cloud Computing

How to install CentOS 6.3


Use CentOS 6.3 ISO file to install. You will get…

Download CentOS 6.3 ISO files from

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CentOS is a free operating system distribution based upon the Linux kernel. It is derived entirely from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) distribution. CentOS exists to provide a free enterprise class computing platform and strive to maintain 100% binary compatibility with its upstream source, Red Hat. CentOS stands for Community enterprise Operating System.

CentOS 6.3 - Install or Upgrade an Existing System
CentOS 6.3 – Install or Upgrade an Existing System
CentOS 6.3 - Test the Installation Media
CentOS 6.3 – Test the Installation Media
CentOS 6.3 - Test the Installation Disc
CentOS 6.3 – Test the Installation Disc
CentOS 6.3 - Test the Installation Disc 1
CentOS 6.3 – Test the Installation Disc 1
CentOS 6.3 - Successful Test of the Installation Media
CentOS 6.3 – Successful Test of the Installation Media
CentOS 6.3 - System Installer Wait State
CentOS 6.3 – System Installer Wait State
CentOS 6.3 - System Installer Wait State
CentOS 6.3 – System Installer Wait State
CentOS 6.3 - Select Language for Installation Process
CentOS 6.3 – Select Language for Installation Process
CentOS 6.3 - Select appropriate keyboard for the system
CentOS 6.3 – Select appropriate keyboard for the system

CentOS 6.3 - Types of devices in Installation

CentOS 6.3 – Types of devices in Installation

CentOS 6.3 - Storage Device Warning

CentOS 6.3 – Storage Device Warning
CentOS 6.3 - Provide Hostname
CentOS 6.3 – Provide Hostname

CentOS 6.3 - Select Time Zone

CentOS 6.3 – Select Time Zone
CentOS 6.3 - Enter Password for Root User
CentOS 6.3 – Enter Password for Root User
CentOS 6.3 - Installation Type-Custom Layout
CentOS 6.3 – Installation Type-Custom Layout

CentOS 6.3 - Selct a Device

CentOS 6.3 – Selct a Device
CentOS 6.3 - Create a Partition
CentOS 6.3 – Create a Partition

The partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel which allows your system to boot operating system, along with files used during the bootstrap process. For most users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.

CentOS 6.3 - Create a Partition-Boot Partition
CentOS 6.3 – Create a Partition-Boot Partition

The root file system is represented by a (/) which is the top of the directory tree. This is roughly equivalent to your “C:” drive under DOS or Windows. User must create a partition for the root directory. The size of your root partition will differ depending on what you install or plan to install.

CentOS 6.3 - Create a Partition-Root Partition
CentOS 6.3 – Create a Partition-Root Partition

SWAP space on your hard drive can be used as virtual memory. Virtual memory allows your computer to run bulky programs and perform multifaceted tasks even if it does not have enough physical RAM. Data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Create one swap partition that is 50% to 100% the size of the physical RAM in your system. If you are short on RAM with plenty of drive space, go big. If you are short on drive space and have lots of RAM, go little.

CentOS 6.3 - Create a Partition-Swap Partition
CentOS 6.3 – Create a Partition-Swap Partition

Click on Next…

CentOS 6.3 - All Partitions
CentOS 6.3 – All Partitions
CentOS 6.3 - Format Partitions
CentOS 6.3 – Format Partitions
CentOS 6.3 - Writing Storage Configurations to Disc
CentOS 6.3 – Writing Storage Configurations to Disc
CentOS 6.3 - Formatting
CentOS 6.3 – Formatting
CentOS 6.3 - Boot Loader Operating System List
CentOS 6.3 – Boot Loader Operating System List
CentOS 6.3 - Desktop Installation of CentOS 6.3
CentOS 6.3 – Desktop Installation of CentOS 6.3
CentOS 6.3 - Starting Installation Process
CentOS 6.3 – Starting Installation Process
CentOS 6.3 - Package Installation Process
CentOS 6.3 – Package Installation Process
CentOS 6.3 - Package Installation Completed
CentOS 6.3 – Package Installation Completed
CentOS 6.3 - Installing Boot Loader
CentOS 6.3 – Installing Boot Loader
CentOS 6.3 - Installation Completed
CentOS 6.3 – Installation Completed
CentOS 6.3 - Installation Completed - Reboot
CentOS 6.3 – Installation Completed – Reboot
CentOS 6.3 - Installation Completed - Reboot 1
CentOS 6.3 – Installation Completed – Reboot 1
CentOS 6.3 Configuration - Welcome
CentOS 6.3 Configuration – Welcome
CentOS 6.3 Configuration - License Details
CentOS 6.3 Configuration – License Details
CentOS 6.3 Configuration - Create User
CentOS 6.3 Configuration – Create User

CentOS 6.3 Configuration - Date and Time

CentOS 6.3 Configuration – Date and Time
CentOS 6.3 Configuration - Kdump
CentOS 6.3 Configuration – Kdump
CentOS 6.3 Configuration - Kdump 1
CentOS 6.3 Configuration – Kdump 1
CentOS 6.3 Login
CentOS 6.3 Login

Done!!

Posted in Cloud Computing, MCQs

What is the definition of Size of a Slice in Cloud Computing?


What is the definition of “Size of a Slice” in Cloud Computing?

It is certainly not:

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Slice of a Pizza
Slice of a Pizza
What is Size of a Slice in Cloud Computing
What is Size of a Slice in Cloud Computing

Source: CloudU

Posted in Cloud Computing

Economics of Cloud Computing


Economics of Cloud Computing: Scarcity refers to the uneasiness between organization’s limited resources and its endless wants and needs. For an organization, resources include Compute, Storage and Networking Infrastructure. In conventional IT environment, upfront investment is the biggest barrier. On top of that, resources are limited and the utilization of limited resources is also inefficient. Virtualization resolves the issue and makes the resource utilization better than the regular approach. The emergence of cloud services is again fundamentally shifting the economics of IT. Cloud technology standardizes and pools IT resources and automates many of the maintenance tasks done manually today. Cloud architectures facilitate elastic consumption, self-service, and pay-as-you-go pricing.

The introduction of this general purpose technology can provide a fundamental contribution to promote growth and competition and it can help the economy to recover from a severe downturn. Economic impact of advancement in the hardware-software field is considerable which is going to have a powerful effect on the market structure of many sectors and on the global macroeconomic performance in the next years.

Business Economics has always been a powerful force in driving industry transformations and as more and more customers assess cloud computing investments strategies that will considerably affect ROI.

Macro and microeconomics are the two vantage points from which the Cloud economy can be observed. Micro and macroeconomics are intertwined; as Cloud economists gain understanding of Cloud phenomena, they can help nations and individuals make more informed decisions while using cloud computing.

Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)

Under the field of macroeconomics, the production possibility frontier (PPF) represents the point at which an economy is most efficiently using resources, therefore, allocating its resources in the best way possible.

Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)
Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)

The production possibility frontier shows there are limits to production, so an economy, to achieve efficiency, must decide what combination of services can be produced.

If there was a change in technology (In our case it’s a disruptive innovation named Cloud Computing) while the other factors remain the same, execution time or time to market will be reduced significantly due to elasticity, pay as you go billing model and flexibility. Output would increase, and the PPF would be pushed outwards. A new curve would represent the new efficient allocation of resources.

The macroeconomic impact of the diffusion of this new general purpose technology may be quite large, as it happened for the introduction of the Internet.

Opportunity Cost

Economics of the Cloud is the field of study concerned with Cloud computing that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of IT services. With “Economics of the cloud”, scope is certainly not limited to Cloud Computing paradigm’s Financial Benefits. It is more about choices Cloud customers make, and to inquire into why?

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Economics of the Cloud should show the way and should not confuse the adopters. In case of Cloud, more of Microeconomics will be critical which includes various aspects such as agility, creativity, innovation, social impact, trust and risk, economic values and, scale of trade off.

Opportunity cost is the cost of any activity measured in terms of the value of the next best alternative foregone (that is not chosen). The opportunity cost is also the cost of the foregone products after making a choice. Opportunity cost is a key concept in economics, and has been described as expressing “the basic relationship between scarcity and choice”.

In such an environment the opportunity cost of moving to cloud computing is paramount because it entails a commitment in ‘sunk costs’: those are costs that underpin the venture. This must be viewed together with potential yield, i.e. the carrot in the hype.

80-20 Problem and Cloud Computing
80-20 Problem and Cloud Computing

Solution of “80-20” Problem is “20-80”: In computer science and engineering control theory such as for electromechanical energy converters, the Pareto principle can be applied to optimization efforts.

Cloud Computing is a force that helps flip this ratio and gives IT departments the ability to spend 80% of their time on core business processes, such as business application design. It’s for this reason, the ability to go from 20% of time and money dedicated to core business processes to 80%, that the economics of Cloud Computing is so compelling. Nowhere is the current model’s inefficiency more evident than in the opportunity costs that organizations pay to manage their own computing needs.

References

http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics3.asp#axzz1nCdiFuXa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle

http://infocus.emc.com/choong_kengleong/cloud-economics/

http://safegov.org/2011/11/1/government-decision-making-the-economics-of-cloud-computing

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macroeconomics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microeconomics

Posted in Java, JEE / J2EE / JSP / Servlets

Install Tomcat 6 or 6.0.35 on Ubuntu 11.10 or 11.04 or 10.10 or 10.04 LTS


While it is possible that older versions of Tomcat may not be compatible with newer JVMs, all the currently supported Apache Tomcat versions (5.5.x, 6.0.x and 7.0.x) are known to run correctly on Java 6 JVMs. (Ref-http://tomcat.apache.org/migration.html)

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we’ll download and extract Tomcat 6 or 6.0.35 from the Apache site

Find the appropriate installation version from : http://apache.hoxt.com/tomcat/tomcat-6/, Download it manually or by wget command from the console.

Installing Tomcat 6 on Ubuntu. If you are running Ubuntu and want to use the Tomcat servlet container, you should not use the version from the repositories as it just doesn’t work correctly. Instead you’ll need to use the manual installation process that I’m outlining here. Before you install Tomcat you’ll want to make sure that you’ve installed Java. Use Synaptic Package Manager to install Java.

Use Synaptic Package Manager to install Java
Use Synaptic Package Manager to install Java
Verify Java Version
Verify Java Version
Now Extract Tomcat files with tar xvzf apache-tomcat-6.0.35.tar.gzOpen Terminal, Go to Tomcat Directory/binRun ./startup.shOpen the default page- http://localhost:8080 Done!!!
Posted in Java, JEE / J2EE / JSP / Servlets

Install Tomcat 5 or 5.5.35 on Ubuntu 11.10 or 11.04 or 10.10 or 10.04 LTS


While it is possible that older versions of Tomcat may not be compatible with newer JVMs, all the currently supported Apache Tomcat versions (5.5.x, 6.0.x and 7.0.x) are known to run correctly on Java 6 JVMs. (Ref-http://tomcat.apache.org/migration.html)

Cloud Computing – Download Free EBooks and Whitepapers
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Windows – Download Free EBooks and Whitepapers

we’ll download and extract Tomcat 5 or 5.5.35 from the Apache site

Find the appropriate installation version from : http://apache.hoxt.com/tomcat/tomcat-5/, Download it manually or by wget command from the console.

Installing Tomcat 5 on Ubuntu. If you are running Ubuntu and want to use the Tomcat servlet container, you should not use the version from the repositories as it just doesn’t work correctly. Instead you’ll need to use the manual installation process that I’m outlining here. Before you install Tomcat you’ll want to make sure that you’ve installed Java.

Use Synaptic Package Manager to install Java.

Use Synaptic Package Manager to install Java
Use Synaptic Package Manager to install Java
Verify Java Version
Verify Java Version
Now
Extract Tomcat files with tar xvzf apache-tomcat-5.5.35.tar.gzOpen Terminal, Go to Tomcat Directory/binRun ./startup.shOpen the default page- http://localhost:8080

Done!!!

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Adobe Acrobat 10 – Free Quick Reference Card


You can Use Linkedin Credentials to Download.

Adobe Acrobat 10 - Free Quick Reference Card
Adobe Acrobat 10 – Free Quick Reference Card

This Adobe Acrobat 10 Quick Reference provides shortcuts, tips, and tricks for the popular application software.
Related Reference Cards:

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Microsoft 2011

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