Posted in Cloud Computing

bash: createrepo: command not found


[root@localhost x86_64]# createrepo ./
bash: createrepo: command not found

createrepo command is not on your system.Download the rpm or use yum install createrepo.

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Install createrepo
[root@localhost x86_64]# yum install createrepo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirror.nbrc.ac.in
* extras: mirror.nbrc.ac.in
* updates: mirror.dhakacom.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
–> Running transaction check
—> Package createrepo.noarch 0:0.9.9-17.el6 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: python-deltarpm for package: createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch
–> Running transaction check
—> Package python-deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: deltarpm = 3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6 for package: python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64
–> Running transaction check
—> Package deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6 will be installed
–> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

================================================================================
Package              Arch        Version                       Repository
Size
================================================================================
Installing:
createrepo           noarch      0.9.9-17.el6                  base       94 k
Installing for dependencies:
deltarpm             x86_64      3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6       base       71 k
python-deltarpm      x86_64      3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6       base       27 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install       3 Package(s)

Total download size: 192 k
Installed size: 518 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch.rpm                |  94 kB     00:00
(2/3): deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64.rpm       |  71 kB     00:00
(3/3): python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64.rp |  27 kB     00:00
——————————————————————————–
Total                                           127 kB/s | 192 kB     00:01
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing : deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64                      1/3
Installing : python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64               2/3
Installing : createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch                               3/3
Verifying  : python-deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64               1/3
Verifying  : createrepo-0.9.9-17.el6.noarch                               2/3
Verifying  : deltarpm-3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6.x86_64                      3/3

Installed:
createrepo.noarch 0:0.9.9-17.el6

Dependency Installed:
deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6
python-deltarpm.x86_64 0:3.5-0.5.20090913git.el6

Complete!
[root@localhost x86_64]#

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Posted in Ant, Java

how to install ant on centos 6.4


execute following command -> yum install ant ant-jdepend

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Output:

[root@localhost apache-cloudstack-4.0.1-incubating-src]# yum install ant ant-jdependLoaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, securityLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile* base: mirror.nbrc.ac.in* extras: mirror.nbrc.ac.in

* updates: mirror.nbrc.ac.in

Setting up Install Process

Resolving Dependencies

–> Running transaction check

—> Package ant.x86_64 0:1.7.1-13.el6 will be installed

–> Processing Dependency: xml-commons-jaxp-1.3-apis for package: ant-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64

–> Processing Dependency: xerces-j2 for package: ant-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64

—> Package ant-jdepend.x86_64 0:1.7.1-13.el6 will be installed

–> Processing Dependency: ant-nodeps = 1.7.1-13.el6 for package: ant-jdepend-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64

–> Processing Dependency: jdepend for package: ant-jdepend-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64

–> Running transaction check

—> Package ant-nodeps.x86_64 0:1.7.1-13.el6 will be installed

—> Package jdepend.noarch 0:2.9-1.2.el6 will be installed

—> Package xerces-j2.x86_64 0:2.7.1-12.6.el6_0 will be installed

–> Processing Dependency: xml-commons-resolver >= 1.1 for package: xerces-j2-2.7.1-12.6.el6_0.x86_64

–> Processing Dependency: java-gcj >= 1.5.0 for package: xerces-j2-2.7.1-12.6.el6_0.x86_64

–> Processing Dependency: java-gcj >= 1.5.0 for package: xerces-j2-2.7.1-12.6.el6_0.x86_64

—> Package xml-commons-apis.x86_64 0:1.3.04-3.6.el6 will be installed

–> Running transaction check

—> Package java-1.5.0-gcj.x86_64 0:1.5.0.0-29.1.el6 will be installed

updates/filelists_db                                     | 1.9 MB     00:30

–> Processing Dependency: sinjdoc for package: java-1.5.0-gcj-1.5.0.0-29.1.el6.x86_64

—> Package xml-commons-resolver.x86_64 0:1.1-4.18.el6 will be installed

–> Running transaction check

—> Package sinjdoc.x86_64 0:0.5-9.1.el6 will be installed

–> Processing Dependency: java_cup >= 0.10 for package: sinjdoc-0.5-9.1.el6.x86_64

–> Running transaction check

—> Package java_cup.x86_64 1:0.10k-5.el6 will be installed

–> Finished Dependency Resolution

 

Dependencies Resolved

 

================================================================================

Package                   Arch        Version                  Repository

Size

================================================================================

Installing:

ant                       x86_64      1.7.1-13.el6             base      2.5 M

ant-jdepend               x86_64      1.7.1-13.el6             base       44 k

Installing for dependencies:

ant-nodeps                x86_64      1.7.1-13.el6             base      781 k

java-1.5.0-gcj            x86_64      1.5.0.0-29.1.el6         base      139 k

java_cup                  x86_64      1:0.10k-5.el6            base      197 k

jdepend                   noarch      2.9-1.2.el6              base      175 k

sinjdoc                   x86_64      0.5-9.1.el6              base      705 k

xerces-j2                 x86_64      2.7.1-12.6.el6_0         base      2.9 M

xml-commons-apis          x86_64      1.3.04-3.6.el6           base      439 k

xml-commons-resolver      x86_64      1.1-4.18.el6             base      145 k

 

Transaction Summary

================================================================================

Install      10 Package(s)

 

Total download size: 8.0 M

Installed size: 24 M

Is this ok [y/N]: y

Downloading Packages:

(1/10): ant-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64.rpm                      | 2.5 MB     00:38

(2/10): ant-jdepend-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64.rpm              |  44 kB     00:00

(3/10): ant-nodeps-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64.rpm               | 781 kB     00:12

(4/10): java-1.5.0-gcj-1.5.0.0-29.1.el6.x86_64.rpm       | 139 kB     00:02

(5/10): java_cup-0.10k-5.el6.x86_64.rpm                  | 197 kB     00:02

(6/10): jdepend-2.9-1.2.el6.noarch.rpm                   | 175 kB     00:02

(7/10): sinjdoc-0.5-9.1.el6.x86_64.rpm                   | 705 kB     00:11

(8/10): xerces-j2-2.7.1-12.6.el6_0.x86_64.rpm            | 2.9 MB     01:08

(9/10): xml-commons-apis-1.3.04-3.6.el6.x86_64.rpm       | 439 kB     00:07

(10/10): xml-commons-resolver-1.1-4.18.el6.x86_64.rpm    | 145 kB     00:01

——————————————————————————–

Total                                            54 kB/s | 8.0 MB     02:31

Running rpm_check_debug

Running Transaction Test

Transaction Test Succeeded

Running Transaction

Installing : java-1.5.0-gcj-1.5.0.0-29.1.el6.x86_64                      1/10

Installing : 1:java_cup-0.10k-5.el6.x86_64                               2/10

Installing : sinjdoc-0.5-9.1.el6.x86_64                                  3/10

Installing : xml-commons-apis-1.3.04-3.6.el6.x86_64                      4/10

Installing : xerces-j2-2.7.1-12.6.el6_0.x86_64                           5/10

Installing : xml-commons-resolver-1.1-4.18.el6.x86_64                    6/10

Installing : ant-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64                                     7/10

Installing : ant-nodeps-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64                              8/10

Installing : jdepend-2.9-1.2.el6.noarch                                  9/10

Installing : ant-jdepend-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64                            10/10

Verifying  : xml-commons-apis-1.3.04-3.6.el6.x86_64                      1/10

Verifying  : jdepend-2.9-1.2.el6.noarch                                  2/10

Verifying  : sinjdoc-0.5-9.1.el6.x86_64                                  3/10

Verifying  : xerces-j2-2.7.1-12.6.el6_0.x86_64                           4/10

Verifying  : ant-nodeps-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64                              5/10

Verifying  : 1:java_cup-0.10k-5.el6.x86_64                               6/10

Verifying  : ant-jdepend-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64                             7/10

Verifying  : xml-commons-resolver-1.1-4.18.el6.x86_64                    8/10

Verifying  : ant-1.7.1-13.el6.x86_64                                     9/10

Verifying  : java-1.5.0-gcj-1.5.0.0-29.1.el6.x86_64                     10/10

 

Installed:

ant.x86_64 0:1.7.1-13.el6          ant-jdepend.x86_64 0:1.7.1-13.el6

 

Dependency Installed:

ant-nodeps.x86_64 0:1.7.1-13.el6

java-1.5.0-gcj.x86_64 0:1.5.0.0-29.1.el6

java_cup.x86_64 1:0.10k-5.el6

jdepend.noarch 0:2.9-1.2.el6

sinjdoc.x86_64 0:0.5-9.1.el6

xerces-j2.x86_64 0:2.7.1-12.6.el6_0

xml-commons-apis.x86_64 0:1.3.04-3.6.el6

xml-commons-resolver.x86_64 0:1.1-4.18.el6

 

Complete!

[root@localhost apache-cloudstack-4.0.1-incubating-src]#

Posted in Cloud Computing, Private Cloud, VMware

VMware vCenter Orchestrator Troubleshooting: Sample workflows are not working


VMware vCenter Orchestrator
VMware vCenter Orchestrator
VMware vCenter Orchestrator Troubleshooting: Sample workflows are not working

1st 2 images are the screen shot of failed workflow in vCenter

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VMware vCenter Orchestrator workflow
VMware vCenter Orchestrator workflow
VMware vCenter Orchestrator workflow - Start Virtual Machine and Wait
VMware vCenter Orchestrator workflow – Start Virtual Machine and Wait

Rest 2 are of failed workflow vCloud Director.

failed workflow vCloud Director
failed workflow vCloud Director
failed workflow - Power on Virtual Machine
failed workflow – Power on Virtual Machine

Installation of vCenter Orchestrator was successful but Sample workflows were not working and we were not able to identify the issue.

Versions: vCenter–4.1 and vCenter plug-in for vCO 1.0 and the vCloud Director 1.0 and vCloud Director plug-in for vCO. 1.2

Workflow Error in vCloud Director
Workflow Error in vCloud Director

Workflow Token Tab was empty; Events tab showed only 2 events 1) created & 2) saved. Inventory for those vCO plug-ins inside the vCO client works fine.

Verify the user which is configured for both plug-ins (it could be the same or not) has the rights to perform the operation of powering on a VM.

If no issue exist with permission misconfiguration then…??/

Check for error messages on the server.log file and it would certainly gives the reasons it is failing.

2011-09-30 17:24:18.149+0530 INFO [Execution] Executing workflow ‘Power On VM’
2011-09-30 17:24:18.274+0530 WARN [WorkflowHandler] Error in execution of workflow ‘Power On VM’
java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: Could not initialize class com.vmware.vmo.plugin.vix.VixServer
at java.lang.Class.forName0(Native Method)
at java.lang.Class.forName(Class.java:247)
at ch.dunes.vso.sdk.SDKModuleDescription.defineInScope(SDKModuleDescription.java:453)
at ch.dunes.vso.sdk.ModulesFactory.defineInScope(ModulesFactory.java:409)
at ch.dunes.scripting.jsmodel.Definitions.doDefineModelInScope(Definitions.java:94)
at ch.dunes.scripting.jsmodel.Definitions.defineModelInScope(Definitions.java:48)
at ch.dunes.scripting.server.script.MainScriptingObject.<init>(MainScriptingObject.java:144)
at ch.dunes.workflow.engine.mbean.helper.WorkflowHandler.execute(WorkflowHandler.java:183)
at ch.dunes.workflow.engine.mbean.helper.WorkflowHandler.run(WorkflowHandler.java:155)
at java.util.concurrent.Executors$RunnableAdapter.call(Executors.java:441)
at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask$Sync.innerRun(FutureTask.java:303)
at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask.run(FutureTask.java:138)
at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.runTask(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:886)
at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:908)
at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
2011-09-30 17:24:18.289+0530 WARN [WorkflowHandler] Unable to Clean Scripting context
java.lang.NullPointerException
at ch.dunes.workflow.engine.mbean.helper.WorkflowHandler.end(WorkflowHandler.java:527)
at ch.dunes.workflow.engine.mbean.helper.WorkflowHandler.execute(WorkflowHandler.java:257)
at ch.dunes.workflow.engine.mbean.helper.WorkflowHandler.run(WorkflowHandler.java:155)
at java.util.concurrent.Executors$RunnableAdapter.call(Executors.java:441)
at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask$Sync.innerRun(FutureTask.java:303)
at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask.run(FutureTask.java:138)
at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.runTask(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:886)
at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:908)
at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)

So now the Solution is: Disable the VIX plug-in in the web configuration and try again.

How to disable the VIX plug-in?

vCO configuration -> Plugins tab and uncheck that -> Restart the service or the server under the Startup tab -> Do it a couple different times to remove it from my inventory on the vCO client.

I removed the VIX plugin and all is working now.

—————————————————————————

2011-09-30 18:22:43.851+0530 INFO [STDOUT] ============================ VMO server ready ==============================

2011-09-30 18:26:57.281+0530 INFO [LicenseTester] LicenseTester [administrator] –> Login successful

2011-09-30 18:26:57.344+0530 INFO [LicenseTester] This vCenter server is licensed for vCenter Orchestrator Server

2011-09-30 18:27:28.818+0530 WARN [ConfigurationFactory] No configuration found. Configuring ehcache from ehcache-failsafe.xml found in the classpath: jar:file:/C:/Program Files/VMware/Infrastructure/Orchestrator/app-server/server/vmo/lib//ext/ehcache-1.5.0.jar!/ehcache-failsafe.xml

2011-09-30 18:27:28.833+0530 INFO [VCloudCacheManager] Creating cache 5b57889ef05d998795b9bbbb73bb74

2011-09-30 18:27:30.318+0530 INFO [AuthChallengeProcessor] basic authentication scheme selected

2011-09-30 18:28:17.982+0530 INFO [Execution] Executing workflow ‘Power On VM’

2011-09-30 18:28:18.607+0530 INFO [Definitions] Adding mapper : ch.dunes.scripting.server.script.ServerScriptMapper@2805805d

2011-09-30 18:28:18.669+0530 INFO [ServerScriptMapper] Initialize Server Scripting Objects

————————————————————————————————————————————————————

Successful Execution of Workflow in vCenter Orchestrator - Power on VM
Successful Execution of Workflow in vCenter Orchestrator – Power on VM

References:

http://communities.vmware.com/message/1744403#1744403

http://communities.vmware.com/message/1735589#1735589

http://communities.vmware.com/message/1637297#1637297

Posted in Cloud Computing, OpenStack, Private Cloud

what is OpenStack


what is OpenStack – OpenStack offers open source software to build public and private clouds started by Rackspace (“Cloud Files” platform) and NASA (Nebula) in 2010. Currently more than 150 companies have joined the project such as Intel, Cisco, Dell, HP, AMD, Canonical, SUSE Linux, Red Hat, and IBM.

There are 3 main service families under OpenStack:

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1. OpenStack Services

Figure 1: OpenStack Services

Presentation Layer: components here interact with users to accept and present information.

Logic Layer: intelligence and control functionality for cloud.

Resources Layer: Compute, Storage and Network Resources for Cloud.

Compute Infrastructure (Nova)

 OpenStack Architecture

Figure 2: OpenStack Architecture

  • Nova: cloud computing fabric controller
  • Instance life cycle management
  • Management of compute resources
  • Networking and Authorization
  • REST-based API
  • Asynchronous eventually consistent communication
  • Hypervisor agnostic: support for Xen, XenServer/XCP, KVM, UML, VMware vSphere and
  • Hyper-V [No virtualization capabilities by itself; instead, it uses libvirt APIs to interact with the supported hypervisors.]

Use Cases:

v  Service providers offering an IaaS compute platform

v  IT departments provisioning compute resources to teams and projects

v  Processing big data with tools like Hadoop

v  Scaling compute up and down to meet demand for web resources and applications

Storage Infrastructure (Swift)

Swift provides a distributed, eventually consistent virtual object store for OpenStack. It is analogous to Amazon Web Services – Simple Storage Service (S3).

  • Storage of large number of objects
  • Storage of large sized objects
  • Data Redundancy
  • Archival capabilities – Work with large datasets
  • Data container for virtual machines and cloud apps
  • Media Streaming capabilities
  • Secure storage of objects
  • Backup and archival
  • Extreme scalability

Imaging Service (Glance)

OpenStack Imaging Service is a lookup and retrieval system for virtual machine images. It can be configured to use any one of the following 3 storage back-ends:

  • OpenStack Object Store to store images
  • S3 storage directly
  • S3 storage with Object Store as the intermediate for S3 access

Image Management

OpenStack Image Services are used for discovering, registering, and retrieving virtual machine images. The service includes a RESTful API that allows users to query VM image metadata and retrieve the actual image with HTTP requests. VM images made available through OpenStack Image Service can be stored in OpenStack Object Storage project, S3 storage.

Instance Management

An instance is a virtual machine provisioned by OpenStack on one of the nova-compute servers. When you launch an instance, a series of steps are triggered on various components of the OpenStack.

OpenStack Instance Life Cycle

Figure 3: OpenStack Instance Life Cycle

Network Management

In OpenStack, the networking is managed by a component called “nova-network”. This interacts with nova-compute to ensure that the instances have the right kind of networking setup for them to communicate among themselves as well as with the outside world.

  • Flat Network
  • Flat DHCP Network
  • VLAN Network

Identity Service

The OpenStack Identity Service provides services for authenticating and managing user, account, and role information for OpenStack clouds running on OpenStack Compute and as an authorization service for OpenStack Object Storage.

Hypervisors Support

List of the supported hypervisors with links to a relevant web site for configuration and use:

  • Hyper-V 2008 – Use to run Windows-based virtual machines, specifically Windows 2008 R2 Datacenter or Enterprise Edition. You must install and run nova-compute on Windows servers that run the Windows-based virtual machines.
  • KVM – Kernel-based Virtual Machine. The virtual disk formats that it supports it inherit from QEMU since it uses a modified QEMU program to launch the virtual machine. The supported formats include raw images, the qcow2, and VMware formats.
  • LXC – Linux Containers (through libvirt), use to run Linux-based virtual machines.
  • QEMU – Quick EMUlator, generally only used for development purposes.
  • UML – User Mode Linux, generally only used for development purposes.
  • VMWare ESX/ESXi 4.1 update 1, runs VMWare-based Linux and Windows images through a connection with the ESX server.
  • Xen – XenServer 5.5, Xen Cloud Platform (XCP), use to run Linux or Windows virtual machines. You must install the nova-compute service on DomU.
Posted in Cloud Computing, Cloud Simulation, How To..., Java

How to Configure CloudAnalyst in Eclipse


Configure CloudAnalyst in Eclipse

Create New Java Project

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Java – Download Free EBooks and Whitepapers
Windows – Download Free EBooks and Whitepapers
New Java Project in Eclipse
New Java Project in Eclipse
Create Java Project in Eclipse
Create Java Project in Eclipse
New Java Project in Eclipse: Java Settings
New Java Project in Eclipse: Java Settings

Java™ Application Development on Linux® – Free 599 Page eBook

Enterprise Java Virtualization:

Understanding the TCO Implications

InfoWorld’s Java IDE Comparison Strategy Guide:

Java Essential Training

Apache Jakarta Commons: Reusable Java™ Components

Enabling Rapid ROI: With Java™ – Based Business Intelligence Applications:

Go to File->Import

New Java Project in Eclipse: Import Source Code from Existing Project
New Java Project in Eclipse: Import Source Code from Existing Project
New Java Project in Eclipse: Import resources from Local File System
New Java Project in Eclipse: Import resources from Local File System
Run CloudAnalyst in Eclipse
Run CloudAnalyst in Eclipse

Done!!!

CloudAnalyst GUI
CloudAnalyst GUI

Single Sign-On for Java and Web Applications

Bulletproof Java Code: A Practical Strategy for Developing Functional, Reliable, and Secure Java Code

Transforming a Generic Java IDE to Your Application Specific IDE:

The Java Virtual Appliance—No OS Required

BEA WebLogic® Operations Control: Application Virtualization for Enterprise Java

Enabling Rapid ROI: With Java™ – Based Business Intelligence Applications:

Posted in Others

What is NERC CIP?


North American Electric Reliability Corporation – Critical Infrastructure Protection

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  • NERC is a non-profit corporation tasked with ensuring the reliability and security of the bulk power transmission system in North America.
  • Nine standards covering the security of electronic perimeters, physical security of critical cyber assets, personnel and training, security management, disaster recovery and more. The overriding goal of CIP-002 through CIP-009 (CIP-001 generally isn’t tied to cybersecurity) is to ensure the bulk electric system is protected from unwanted and destructive effects caused by cyberterrorism and other cyberattacks, including attacks from within the utility (i.e., insider threats).

NERC CIP

    • CIP-001 – Sabotage reporting
    • CIP-002 – Critical cyber asset identification: identify critical assets and to perform a risk-based assessment of those assets on a regular basis
    • CIP-003 – Security management controls: Policies for monitoring and changing the configuration of critical assets need to be defined, as do policies governing access to internally and externally facing critical assets
    • CIP-004 – Personnel and training
    • CIP-005 – Electronic security perimeters: A logical perimeter needs to be established around critical cyber assets, including the use of firewalls to block vulnerable ports and attack monitoring tools such as intrusion detection and prevention systems
    • CIP-006 – Physical security of critical cyber assets: organizations need to enforce controls on physical access to critical cyber assets
    • CIP-007 – Systems security management: Systems for monitoring security events need to be deployed
    • CIP-008 – Incident reporting and response planning: Comprehensive emergency response plans for cyberattacks
    • CIP-009 – Recovery plans for critical cyber assets: natural disasters and other unplanned events
  • More than 100 NERC Reliability Standards
  • Requirements for protecting critical assets used in the bulk electric system and the systems that support those assets
  • Note: Version 3 of the NERC CIP standards is currently under development, and will focus on inclusion of the level-2 SCADA protocols, encryption of communications, forensics following a cyber incident and closer alignment with the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) standards for cyber security.
  • Federally designated Electric Reliability Organization that develops and enforces reliability standards and requirements for planning and operating the collective bulk power system
  • Accredited by the American National Standards Institute
  • It covers resource, transmission, personnel and training, emergency preparedness and the design and maintenance of facilities, including nuclear power facilities.
  • Standards, including CIP, mandatory for users, owners and operators of the bulk electric power system, entities that serve specific functions in the electric power network, such as generator owners and generator operators, as well as transmission owners and transmission operators
  • NERC CIP is all about management of cyber assets (IT infrastructure) — the systems that support the operation of the bulk electric system. Because much of the infrastructure supporting the bulk electric power system is IP-based, the NERC CIP standards provide guidelines for the identification and management of critical cyber assets, as well as the security (both physical and cyber) of those assets. And, while many of the disaster scenarios facing the electric grid concern natural disasters like hurricanes and floods, increased attention in recent years on cyberattacks on utilities has raised the specter of terrorist- or state-sponsored attacks on the electric grid.
  • Penalties – The levying of fines as well as sanctions or other actions against covered entities

References:

http://searchcompliance.techtarget.com/feature/What-is-NERC-CIP-and-ITs-role-in-critical-infrastructure-protection#organizations

http://searchsecuritychannel.techtarget.com/tip/Getting-to-know-the-NERC-CIP-standards

http://www.nerc.com/page.php?cid=3|http://www.nerc.com/page.php?cid=3|25

http://searchcompliance.techtarget.com/definition/NERC-CIP-critical-infrastructure-protection

http://searchsecuritychannel.techtarget.com/tip/Introduction-to-NERC-CIP-004-compliance-standards-Training-personnel

 

Posted in Cloud Computing, Uncategorized

Nagios Cloud Monitotring


Nagios Cloud Monitotring
Computer Network, Network Monitoring and Management

Figure 1: Computer Network, Network Monitoring and Management

Computers connected with communication channels shares resources and information with each other. Network monitoring supervises all or specific operations of computer network using various network monitoring products. It ensures performance and availability of network services by identifying and reporting failures of network services. Network management refers to the actions, procedures, and tools that are related to keeping network services up and running, keeping track of resources, performing upgrades, and configuring resources of networked systems. Network Management is a superset of network monitoring term.

In this article our focus will be on open source network monitoring and infrastructure monitoring tool known as Nagios. It provides monitoring and reporting for network services such as HTTP, SMTP, SSH, and FTP; host resources such as logs, storage and processor usage. It monitors IT infrastructure, detect the problems before they occur and alerts the stockholders. Web based GUI is available. It is also used to monitor publicly available services. It is very useful for SMBs.

Effective usage of it ensures issue tracking within timely manner; SLAs, which are very critical in today’s dynamic IT world, can be met effectively and it ensures that outages will have minimal effect on organization’s IT infrastructure as it monitors infrastructure extensively.

Nagios Core

Nagios Core is an open source, infrastructure monitoring system that enables organizations to identify IT infrastructure problems before they have an effect on critical business processes.

Nagios Core provides base for Nagios XI – commercial monitoring solution.

Nagios Core allows to monitor your entire IT infrastructure to ensure IT resources, applications, services, and business processes are functioning appropriately. In the event of a failure, it can alert technical staff of the problem in timely manner which allows them to commence remediation processes before outages affect business processes, end-users, or customers. It is licensed under GNU General Public License.

How it works?

How Nagios Works

Figure 2 – How it Works?

Features

Features of Nagios

Figure 3 – Features

It can empower IT organizations and Cloud Service Providers to identify and resolve issues in a way that outages have minimal impact on IT infrastructure and processes. It provides extensive and detailed monitoring of IT resources, detection of outages, deep visibility into entire infrastructure and detailed report on the status of resources, services and other components. Availability reports, Historical reports and third party addons help into getting insight whether SLAs are being met effectively or not.

Multiple online resources are available which can be useful to the users; support forum, Support portal, and Community mailing lists is also very useful.

Comparison with IBM Tivoli Network Manager and Nimsoft Monitoring Solution

  Nagios Nimsoft Monitoring Solution IBM Tivoli Network Manager
Trend Prediction No Yes Yes
Auto Discovery Plug-in Yes Yes
Syslog Plug-in Yes Yes
Distributed Monitoring Yes Yes Yes
Data Storage Flat file,SQL SQLServer,Oracle MySQL,Oracle Database,DB2
Access Control Yes Yes Yes
License GPL Commercial Commercial

Use Cases

ISPs, Government agencies, Health care, Manufacturing, and financial institutions can use it effectively for network monitoring.

Banking and Finance Industry

It is desirable to have networking monitoring product which is easy to setup, configure and maintain. It must monitor different kind of devices and multiple platforms within adequate budget. Banking and financial industry deals with critical, time bound and monetary transactions which should be made available to customers all the time. Its alerting capabilities help banking and finance industries to decrease the downtime of various services within adequate budget due to its open source availability.

Telecommunication Industry

Telecommunication providers who use various application and system resources monitored by various network monitoring systems can use it to provide deep insight into the complex IT infrastructure. By using single solution in the form of Nagios, operational efficiency and cost benefits can be achieved.

Monitor openSUSE Virtual Machine

To run a Nagios core, you need a machine running Linux or Unix variant, Network accessibility as basic prerequisite.

We can use VMware workstation or VMware Player to create virtual machine; In fact any other product can be used also. Install openSUSE 12.2 operating system on the virtual machine as we will use that linux variant in the below steps. Insert openSuse 12.2 DVD and from VMware workstation, go to Edit Settings of that virtual machine to connect to the openSUSE DVD.

Prerequisite packages:

  • C/C++ development libraries
  • php5
  • apache2
  • apache2-mod_php5

We will use Zypper command to install prerequisite packages. Zypper is a command line package manager.  It uses libzypp and provides functions such as repository access, and package installation. Zypper RPM packages are by default available on standard openSUSE installation media and need not to install the packages manually. It can be used to install/remove/update packages or patches, and plain rpm files; it also provides detailed installation summary.

To install C/C++ development libraries:

zypper install kernel-source make gcc gcc-c++

To install other packages:

zypper install rrdtool php5 php5-gd php5-zlib apache2-mod_php5 perl-SNMP net-snmp-32bit nmap ncpfs libwavpack1 apache2

Download open source  http://www.nagios.org/download/

Nagios XI is a commercial version built on Nagios core; its pre-build packages are available on the its website. VMware virtual machine, vSphere OVF, Microsoft virtual machine and source installer is available.

Login with root, create user, change password and add a group.

linux-5vhd:/home/mitesh # /usr/sbin/useradd -m nagios

linux-5vhd:/home/mitesh # passwd nagios

Changing password for nagios.

New Password:

Password changed.

Add gorup nagcmd

sudo groupadd nagcmd

sudo groupadd Nagios

Add users nagios in group nagcmd  and  nagios  group

sudo usermod  -G nagcmd Nagios

Extract the Nagios core tar file; cd the the extracted folder and execute following commad:

sudo ./configure -with-command-group=nagcmd

Sudo make all

Successful execution will end with “Enjoy!” message.

Installs the init script in /etc/rc.d

linux-5vhd:/home/nagios # sudo make install-init

/usr/bin/install -c -m 755 -d -o root -g root /etc/rc.d

/usr/bin/install -c -m 755 -o root -g root daemon-init /etc/rc.d/nagios

*** Init script installed ***

Installs sample config files in /usr/local/nagios/etc

sudo make install-config

Installs and configures permissions on the directory

linux-5vhd:/home/nagios # sudo make install-commandmode

/usr/bin/install -c -m 775 -o nagios -g nagcmd -d /usr/local/nagios/var/rw

chmod g+s /usr/local/nagios/var/rw

*** External command directory configured ***

Configure Nagios for apache

linux-5vhd:/home/nagios # sudo make install-webconf

/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 sample-config/httpd.conf /etc/apache2/conf.d/nagios.conf

*** Nagios/Apache conf file installed ***

Make a webadmin password for  nagios  admin

linux-5vhd:/home/nagios # htpasswd2 -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/htpasswd.users nagiosadmin

New password: (admin)

Re-type new password:

Adding password for user nagiosadmin

Restart Apache

linux-5vhd:/home/nagios # sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

redirecting to systemctl

linux-5vhd:/home/nagios # service apache2 status

apache2.service – apache

Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; disabled)

Active: active (running) since Tue, 06 Nov 2012 01:18:16 +0530; 1min 47s ago

Process: 18724 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/start_apache2 -D SYSTEMD -k start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

Main PID: 18743 (httpd2-prefork)

CGroup: name=systemd:/system/apache2.service

├ 18743 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork -f /etc/apache2/httpd.conf -D SYSTEMD -k start

├ 18744 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork -f /etc/apache2/httpd.conf -D SYSTEMD -k start

├ 18745 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork -f /etc/apache2/httpd.conf -D SYSTEMD -k start

├ 18746 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork -f /etc/apache2/httpd.conf -D SYSTEMD -k start

├ 18747 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork -f /etc/apache2/httpd.conf -D SYSTEMD -k start

└ 18748 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork -f /etc/apache2/httpd.conf -D SYSTEMD -k start

Nov 06 01:18:04 linux-5vhd start_apache2[18724]: httpd2-prefork: apr_sockaddr_info_get() failed for linux-5vhd

Nov 06 01:18:04 linux-5vhd start_apache2[18724]: httpd2-prefork: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.0.1 for ServerName

Download the Nagios plugin from http://www.nagios.org/download/plugins/

Extract the file

cd nagios-plugins-1.4.15

sudo ./configure –with-user=nagios –with-group=nagcmd

sudo make

Wait for 10-15 minutes approximately – Checking of various parameters until the command finishes the execution.

sudo make install

Add Nagios to the list of system services to make it automatically start when the system starts.

chkconfig –add nagios

chkconfig nagios on

Verify the sample Nagios configuration files.

/usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

If there are no errors, start Nagios.

service nagios start

Open Browser and Access http://localhost/nagios

Nagios Web Interface

Figure 4 – Nagios Web Interface

Network Outage details from Nagios

Nagios Web Interface - Tactical Monitoring Overview

Figure 5 – Nagios Web Interface – Tactical Monitoring Overview

Current Network Status

Current Network Status

Figure 6 – Current Network Status

Alert History in Nagios Web Interface

Alert History

Figure 7 – Alert History

Verify Performance information.

Performance Information

Figure 8 – Performance Information

Information on Scheduling Queues

Check Scheduling Queues

Figure 9 – Check Scheduling Queues

Nagios Checker-Mozilla Firefox add-ons for Nagios

Mozilla Firefox add-ons for Nagios provide status bar display to provide information on the status of resources from Nagios. Nagios web interface information is parsed and information is made available to the indicator. Add-on has been successfully verified with Nagios 3, 2.5+, 2.0b4, 1.5, 1.3 and 1.2.

Add the Nagios Checker from https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/nagios-checker/ to Firefox. Restart Firefox. Right click on the “N” sign in status bar and click on settings option. Provide Nagios web URL, Username and Password.

 Nagios Checker Settings - Web Interface

Figure 10 – Nagios Checker Settings – Web Interface

Provide Static Script URL.

Nagios Checker Settings - Script URL

Figure 11 – Nagios Checker Settings – Script URL

Click Ok and within seconds, you will be able to see the status provided by Nagios on the status bar.

Nagios Checker Status

Figure 12 – Nagios Checker Status

Cloud Monitoring with nagios

As per NIST’s definition, Cloud computing is a model for enabling

  • Ubiquitous,
  • Convenient,
  • On-demand network access

to a shared pool of    configurable computing resources

  • Networks
  • Servers
  • Storage

that can be rapidly provisioned and de-provisioned with minimal management effort. Virtualization is the core of Cloud Computing considering it provides, Cost saving by reducing upfront investment in infrastructure. In Virtualization, we create multiple virtual environments on a single physical resource by decoupling OS from hardware, create an abstraction between OS and the hardware and optimize resource utilization with the use of virtualization product.

When we say Cloud Monitoring, it is in the context of monitoring resources available in Cloud or provided by Cloud service providers.

In virtual world monitoring of resources is not only necessary but crucial also to provide high availability and fault tolerance, and to avoid single point failure since resources are shared. Monitoring of virtual system is dynamic cince the resources are vitual and can be treated in similar way to files. Reource monitoring for scaling up and scaling down is also critical considering the huge capacity (virtyally unlimited) provided by Cloud service providers.

Public Cloud Monitoring

Cloud monitoring refers to the monitoring of the performance of physical or virtual servers, storage, networks, and the applications running on them. Cloud monitoring tools are employed can collect data and illustrate patterns that might be difficult to spot otherwise in dynamic infrastructure and services provided by Cloud service providers. It used to achieve high availability.

Nagios provides monitoring of Cloud resources; compute, storage and network services. Nagios is proficient of monitoring a variety of servers and operating systems in both physical and virtual environment. We have seen an example where we have used Nagios to monitor virtual machine created in VMware workstation. With Nagios, it is easy to detect Cloud Computing environment issues, detection of network outages and application availability.

Benefits and Limitations

Implementing effective Cloud monitoring with Nagios offers multiple benefits:

  • High Availability: Increased server, services, and application availability
  • Fault Tolerance: Fast detection of network outages
  • SLA compliance: Fast detection of cloud computing environment problems
  • Data availability: Fast detection of storage subsystem problems

Amazon Web Services (AWS) Monitoring

Nagios provides monitoring of Amazon EC2, Amazon Simple Storage Services etc. Nagios solutions that provide Cloud monitoring capabilities and benefits are Nagios XI and Nagios Core.

Reference

http://compnetworking.about.com/od/itinformationtechnology/f/net_monitoring.htm

Nagios Core Documentation: http://nagios.sourceforge.net/docs/nagioscore/3/en/toc.html

http://library.nagios.com/library/products/nagiosxi/manuals

https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/nagios-checker/

http://searchenterpriselinux.techtarget.com/definition/Nagios